Wednesday, June 13, 2012

privatives and past passive participles

Below are examples of Finnish privates and past passive participles.

Privatives

Notice that in some cases the Estonian form matches the Finnish (työtön - töötu) but in others Estonian makes use of the abessive case with its suffix -ta (eg. virheeton in Fn. but vigadeta in Et.).

loppu -------- loputon
E: lõpp -------- lõputu
end -------- endless

kenkä -------- kengätön
E: king -------- kingata
shoe -------- shoeless

työ -------- työtön
E: töö -------- töötu
work -------- jobless, unemployed

polku -------- poluton
E: tee -------- teeta
path -------- pathless

hammas -------- hampaaton
E: hammas -------- hambutu
tooth -------- toothless

maku -------- mauton
E: maitse -------- maitsetu
taste -------- tastless

muoto -------- muodoton
E: vorm -------- vormitu
shape, form -------- shapeless, formless

lumi -------- lumeton
E: lumi -------- lumetu
snow -------- snowless

aurinko -------- auringoton
E: päike -------- päikeseta
sun -------- sunless

virhe -------- virheetön
E: viga -------- veata [without mistake]/veatu [flawless]
mistake -------- errorless

olematon
olematu [olemata = not come to be/pass yet]
inexistant

kirjoittamaton
kirjutamata [kirjutamatu = unwriteable]
unwritten

pesemätön
pesemata [pese(ta)matu = unwashable]
unwashed

leipomaton
toores [raw] (küpsetamata [unbaked])
unbaked

syömätön
söömata
uneatten

asumaton
asustamata
uninhabited

E: lugemata = unread, uncounted; lugematu/loendamatu = uncountable; loetamatu = unreadable

Past passive participle

opiskeltu
õpitud
studied

pesty
pestud
washed

menty
mindud
gone

saatu
saadud
received

syöty
söödud
eaten

sanottu
räägitud
spoken

etsitty
otsitud
searched for

luettu
loetud
read

kannettu
kantud
carried

kielletty
keelatud
forbidden

huomattu
märgatud
noticed

tarvittu
vajatud (but cf. tarvis 'need')
needed

vaiettu
vaigistatud
silent

tiedetty
teatud
known

tietty
teatud
certain

tuttu
tuntud
famous, well-known

käytetty
kasutatud, tarvitatud
used

unohdettu
unustatud
forgotten

Back and forth

rakentamaton -------- rakennettu
ehitamata -------- ehitatud
unbuilt -------- built

maalattu -------- maalaamaton
värvitud -------- värvimata
painted -------- unpainted

keittämätön -------- keitetty
 toores -------- küpsetatud
uncooked -------- cooked

kuorittu -------- kuorimaton
kooritud -------- koorimata
peeled -------- unpeeled

Thanks to ainurakne on Unilang.org for corrections!

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